130-31 multiple emails were transmitted between dean Butler. Leo, including one where the anonymous donors email was redacted, about media stories on the controversial name change (pp. 432-34, 452-58, 460-62, 495- 99 ). On 5/6/16, dean Butler sent a summary of media stories. Leo along with Reginald. Brown of the wilmerHale law firm (formally, wilmer Cutler Hale pickering dorr llp) (. Although the names of the lawyer and law firm of the anonymous donor continue to be redacted by gmu from the Grant Agreement (.
And in particular a commitment to excellence. In an April 4, 2018 speech at the Christian conservative hillsdale college in Michigan,. Leo expressed the darker view that there can be no mistake that law school teaching has only tipped its hat to covering the originalism and textualism that Justice Scalia advocated because political and external forces have been brought to bear like holding a federalist Society. Link to video of speech (beginning at 29:08). The new York times has further uncovered that a virginia-based entity called the bh group whose ownership is difficult to discern made a 1 million contribution to the Trump Inauguration in December 2016. 4/20/2017 New York times article. While the names of the individuals associated with the bh group are not public information, the individual listed as the bh groups Organizer in its Articles of Organization is the same individual listed as the Organizer of the bh fund. Any suggestion that the bh fund may be an unauthorized project. Bunch is dispelled by the presence of Eugene meyer, the federalist Societys President, on an April 28, 2016 email. Following the law schools announcement of the name change in a press release reviewed short and edited.
As the third-party beneficiary in the Grant Agreement, the bh fund has been given the right to enforce all of the donors rights in the Agreement, including the right to terminate the Agreement if in its sole and absolute discretion the law School. The bh fund was also given the right to review and approve. Proposed publicity about the conversion to the School Name (. Further research. Pienta in the virginia state corporation Commissions registry and annual reports revealed that the bh funds President is the federalist Societys leonard leo and that its Secretary-Treasurer is Jonathan dom Bunch, vice President of the federalist Society. The bh fund was organized by the law firm of Holtzman Vogel Josefiak torchinsky in Warrenton, va, whose named principal, jill Vogel, was the republican nominee for lieutenant governor of Virginia in november 2017. Zoe tillman of buzzfeed News confronted. Leo with the connection to the bh fund and he confirmed that he is responsible for making sure that the law school remains true to its principles over the course of the gift. He added, Those principles are not all that different from what you would expect from any academic institution: a commitment to academic freedom and a due respect for intellectual diversity and the freedom of expression.
The koch foundation agreement provided for grants universities to the gmu foundation totaling 10 million over a five year period. The agreement with the anonymous donor provided 4 million per year for five years, conditioned on yearly determinations by the donor and a third party beneficiary in their sole and absolute discretion, based on written proposals prepared by the george mason foundation, that the law. That Mission is to retain focus on the study of Law economicswhich furnishes the faculty with a common culture and to develop additional related areas of concentration and intellectual leadership such asconstitutional studies, administrative law, and the relationship between law and liberty, including a new. The Grant Agreement deemed dean Butler a critical part of advancing the Schools Mission, and requires immediate notice to be given to the donors and third-party beneficiary if the individual holding the dean position changes (pp. George mason University initially redacted the name of the third-party beneficiary when the Grant Agreements were produced to buzzfeed News in late April 2016. But in response to repeated foia requests from. Pienta, gmu finally produced a version of the Grant Agreement in August 2017 that identified the third-party beneficiary as the bh fund, a 501(c 4) Virginia nonstock corporation (.
Leo, for which. Leo provided his wise counsel (. In late february 2016, less than two weeks after Justice Scalias untimely death, an anonymous donor. Leo, a personal friend of the late justice Scalia and his family, about renaming the law School (. Leo in turn approached dean Butler, who immediately told gmu vice President Janet Bingham at 6:40 am on February 26, 2016 that the deal came together last night (. The next day, dean Butler pronounced this a game changer for Mason Law and said he was Off to cabo for a week of r r (. Two weeks later,. Leo met with the Scalia family to secure their approval, saying i am spending the weekend with Scalia family and will be making sure they are good with the naming (. Less than one month after dean Butlers pre-dawn text to vice President Bingham, march 31, 2016 Grant Agreements were finalized with the Charles Koch foundation and the anonymous donor.
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If our representatives, house and Senate, are of the grabbers people, meaning one of us, by the people, meaning elected by us, and for the party instead of for the people, then our country may indeed perish from this earth. . we know why they do it, a bribe to help with future elections, personal gain, a chairmanship or membership on a particular committee, fear of reprisals from the leader and/or to enhance the power of their party. There is nothing in the constitution preventing this behavior nor should there. . It is this form of Party politics that is wrong, not the constitution, and it should be disgraced and every politician behaving this way should be shamed and ridiculed until it stops. . we are beginning to see some hope with the representatives that have been elected to uphold tea party principles turning against their party leaders when necessary to vote for the people. Summary Written by donald Mellon.
Federalist Papers Summaries Index Page, read The federalist Papers. The march 2016 Grant Agreement with an Anonymous Donor Designated a third-Party beneficiary Which Has been revealed to be the federalist Society. Emails before the change in the name of the law School show that there was already a relationship between Scalia law dean Henry butler (who was appointed in April 2015 and leonard leo, executive vice President of the federalist Society. Leo is best known for his role in recommending conservative judges, including now-Justice neil Gorsuch, to the Trump Administration. In September 2015, the two exchanged emails about fundraising, with dean Butler sharing his five-year Plan for Mason Law with.
It is mentioned without proof at this time that the federal Constitution under consideration balances all of these issues with a republican government. This concludes the summary but if the reader will permit this humble summarizer I will briefly address the following issue: If our form of government was designed to protect the liberties of the minority and the good of the country as explained in Madisons paper. Is there something wrong with our constitution? . Is our electorate operating unconstitutionally? Before answering these questions let me give an example of the thinking in 1787 as i understand it from Madisons paper of how a republic encompassing the Union would protect the liberties of the people and preserve the good of the country. .
Suppose tobacco farmers in North Carolina through thought or corruption or whatever gained sufficient support in their state to pass a law requiring all individuals over 13 years of age to smoke tobacco. . They then brought this desire to the federal Republican government. . But here their interests would have minimal support from representatives from maine, texas, and everywhere else other than nc because the representatives from all other states considering the liberty of their constituents and the good of the rest of the country would never approve such. Therefore a large republic will defeat the will of a faction if it is detrimental to the whole because of the merit of the representatives, the founders thought. Party Unity at the congressional level will defeat our form of representative government as it did with Obamacare. . If representatives vote with the party interests over the interests of the people then a representative form of government will fail in the protection of the liberty of the people. .
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Democracies have a poor track record because the majority eventually tramples on the rights of the minority and often does not protect the public good. . Democracies have ever been spectacles of turbulence and contention; have ever been found incompatible with personal security or the rights of property, and have in general been as short in their lives, as they have been violent in their deaths. So how does a republic differ from a pure democracy and solve the problem? There are two great points of difference in favor of the republic, the delegation of the government to representatives elected by the citizens and the greater number of citizens and area over which short it may be applied. . In a republic it is favorable to have representatives elected with a greater number of citizens to protect against the election of unworthy candidates and to elect the people with the most attractive merit. . A large republic with many representatives is necessary to guard against the cabals of a few but should not be so large as to create the confusion of the multitude. . The argument is extended to favor the larger Republic formed by the union of the states as opposed to republics for individual states which would not be of adequate size to thwart the action of factions. . A pure democracy cannot be an effective government if the governed occupy a large area with many citizens and diverse interests because the requirement for every citizen to assemble and vote on every issue would be impractical and unworkable.
The paper should be read in its entirety rather than in short summery if that is of interest. Madison describes how the proposed Republican government mitigates the problems caused in popular governments both ancient and modern by factions homework of the population whether amounting to a majority or minority that are united and actuated by some interest adverse to the rights of other citizens. he spends some time on why factions exist among people and the possibility of eliminating them while yet preserving liberty and concludes they exist because of human nature and they cannot be eliminated thus one must control their effect. . If the faction is in the minority then republican government clearly controls this situation by regular vote of the majority. . But what if a majority, how are the rights of the minority and the public good protected? . The answer to this is the primary object of this paper. . Another purpose is to continue the argument begun in the last paper that even though the Union of States would be large with many diverse economic and social issues a republican government would be the preferred form of government.
the proposed government cannot be deemed a national one since its jurisdiction extends to certain enumerated objects only and leaves to the several States a residuary and inviolable sovereignty over all other objects. The last issue that of amendments is neither wholly national nor wholly federal. . The fact that States votes are required makes it federal but since a unanimous vote is not required that is a national characteristic. . so in summary the proposed Constitution is neither a national nor a federal constitution but a composition of both. . Ratification is federal, sources of power are both, operation is national, extent of powers is federal, and amending authority is both. Summary Written by donald Mellon Federalist Papers Summaries Index Page read The federalist Papers. James Madison, the federalist Summary no 10: Madison, november 22, 1787, this paper is considered an important document in American history for it lays out how the writers of the constitution defined the form of government that would protect minority rights from organized and united.
to determine if the character of the proposed government is federal or national we must look at three objects; what is the foundation of its establishment, what are the sources of its powers and the operation and extent of them, and by what authority are. The establishment of the government is through a ratification process where decisions are made at the State level by officials elected by the people for that purpose. . The ratification is made by a single vote from each of the independent sovereign States that desired to be part of the new Union so that is a federal act. Any State not ratifying the constitution would not be a member of the Union. If the whole of the people voting a majority to ratify was required that would be a national act but that was not the case thus a federal act. The next relation is to the sources from which umum the government derives its powers. . The house of representatives derives its powers from the people and the people are represented in the same proportion as they are within each State, thus a national position. . The senate derives its power from the States whose legislatures select the senators with two from each States, which is federal position. . The presidents powers come from a compound source where the State legislatures chose Electors to cast votes equal to the sum of senators and representatives which are counted by the president of the senate, and if no majority is reached by any candidate the house.
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James Madison, the metamorphosis federalist Papers Summary no 39: Madison. January 16, 1788, madison begins the candid survey of the plan of government reported by the convention by defining a republican form of government and then answering critics concerning whether the proposed plan is federal or national, that is, a confederacy of States. This important last point is the difference between States maintaining their sovereignty if federal. A union with direct control of the people if a national government. . A definition of republicanism is necessary because history has confused the issue. . A republic is a government that derives all its powers directly or indirectly from the great body of the people; and is administered by persons holding their offices during pleasure for a limited period or during good behavior. . A comparison of this definition to the individual State constitutions shows that for the most part States have a form of republican government. But critics claim that they should also have preserved the federal form of government as in the Article of Confederation. .