14 Warren Norman edit Throughout the 1940s, researchers such as raymond Cattell 16 and Donald Fiske 17 used factor analysis to explore the overarching structure of the trait terms in Allport and Odbert's Column. Rather than rely on the factors obtained by these researchers, 4 Warren Norman conducted an independent analysis of Allport and Odbert's terms in 1963. 18 Despite finding a five-factor structure similar to fiske's, norman decided to return to Allport and Odbert's original list to create a more precise and better-structured taxonomy of terms. 19 Using the 1961 edition of Webster's International Dictionary, norman added relevant terms and removed those from Allport and Odbert's list that were no longer in use. This resulted in a source list of approximately 40,000 potential trait-descriptive terms. Using this list, norman then removed terms that were deemed archaic or obsolete, solely evaluative, overly obscure, dialect-specific, loosely related to personality, and purely physical. By doing so, norman reduced his original list to 2,797 unique trait-descriptive terms. 19 Norman's work would eventually serve as the basis for dean peabody and Lewis Goldberg's explorations of the big five personality traits.
The Plural of, hypothesis
Predating the person-situation debate by over 30 years, 15 Allport and forgive Odbert included this group to appease researchers in social psychology, sociology, and ethics. 14 Column iv : The last of Allport and Odbert's four columns contained 3,682 words. Called the "miscellaneous column" by the authors, column iv contains important personality-descriptive terms that did not fit into the other three columns. Allport and Odbert offered potential subgroups for terms describing behaviors (e.g., pampered, crazed physical qualities associated with psychological traits (e.g., lean, roly-poly and talents or abilities (e.g., gifted, prolific). However, they noted that these subdivisions were not necessarily accurate, as: (i) innumerable subgroups were possible, (ii) these subgroups would not incorporate all of the miscellaneous terms, and (iii) further editing might reveal that these terms do fit into the other three columns. 14 Allport and Odbert did not present these four columns as representing orthogonal concepts. Many of their nearly 18,000 terms could have been differently classified or placed into multiple categories, particularly those in Columns i and. Although the authors attempted to remedy this with the aid of three outside editors, the average level of agreement between these independent reviewers was approximately. Noting that each outside judge seemed to have a preferred column, the authors decided to present the classifications performed by Odbert. Rather than try to rationalize this decision, Allport and Odbert presented the results of their study as somewhat arbitrary and unfinished.
Being the most important of the four columns to Allport and Odbert and future psychologists, 4 its terms most closely relate to those used by modern personality psychologists (e.g., aggressive, introverted, sociable). Allport and Odbert suggested that this rainbow column represented a minimum rather than final list of trait terms. Because of this, they recommended that other researchers consult the remaining three columns in their studies. 14 Column ii : In contrast with the more stable dispositions described by terms in Column i, this group includes terms describing present states, attitudes, emotions, and moods (e.g., rejoicing, frantic). Reflecting this focus on temporary states, present participles represent the majority of the 4,541 terms in Column. Column iii : The largest of the four groups, column iii contains 5,226 words related to social evaluations of an individual's character (e.g., worthy, insignificant). Unlike the previous two columns, this group does not refer to internal psychological attributes of a person. As such, Allport and Odbert acknowledged that Column iii did not meet their definition of trait-related terms.
14 Although this figure is similar in size to the german and English estimates offered by earlier researchers, gordon Allport and Henry. Odbert revealed this to be a severe underestimate in a 1936 study. Similar to the earlier work. Perkins, they used Webster's New International Dictionary as their source. From this list of global approximately 400,000 words, Allport and Odbert identified 17,953 unique terms used to describe personality or behavior. 14 This is one short of the most influential psycholexical studies in the history of trait psychology. 4 Not only was it the longest, most exhaustive list of personality-descriptive words at the time, 4 it was also one of the earliest attempts at classifying English-language terms with the use of psychological principles. Using their list of nearly 18,000 terms, Allport and Odbert separated these into four categories or "columns 14 Column I : This group contains 4,504 terms that describe or are related to personality traits.
I examined many pages of its index here and there as samples of the whole, and estimated that it contained fully one thousand words expressive of character, each of which has a separate shade of meaning, while each shares a large part of its meaning. 10 :181 — Francis Galton, measurement of Character, 1884 Despite galton's early ventures into the lexical study of personality, over two decades passed before English-language scholars continued his work. A 1910 study. Partridge listed approximately 750 English adjectives used to describe mental states, tudy of Webster's New International Dictionary. Perkins provided an estimate of 3,000 such terms. 12 These early explorations and estimates were not limited to the English-speaking world, with philosopher and psychologist Ludwig Klages stating in 1929 that the german language contains approximately 4,000 words to describe inner states. 13 Psycholexical studies edit Allport odbert edit nearly half a century after Galton first investigated the lexical hypothesis, Franziska baumgarten published the first psycholexical classification of personality-descriptive terms. Using dictionaries and characterology publications, baumgarten identified 1,093 separate terms in the german language used in the description of personality and mental states.
Ribes_score — nltk.2.5 documentation
Some scholars, however, consider ch 33 a composite text extracted from other portions of Numbers, Exodus, and deuteronomy." numbers 14:33; deuteronomy 8:2 Gregory. Lanave,., the fathers of the Church: Mediaeval Continuation, The letters of Peter interest Damian 151-180, letter 160,. 110., The catholic University of America Press, washington. (2005) julia bolton Holloway, sweet New Style: Brunetto latino, dante Alighieri and geoffrey chaucer, chapter iii, (2003) Retrieved from " ". The lexical hypothesis 1 (also known as the fundamental lexical hypothesis, 2 lexical approach, 3 or sedimentation hypothesis 4 ) is a thesis current primarily in early personality psychology and subsequently subsumed by many later efforts in that subfield. 5, despite some variation in its definition and application, the hypothesis is generally defined by two postulates. The first states that those personality characteristics that are important to a group of people will eventually become a part of that group's language.
The second follows from the first, stating that more important personality characteristics are more likely to be encoded into language as a single word. 6, with origins in the late 19th century, use of the lexical hypothesis began to flourish in English and German psychology in the early 20th century. 4, the lexical hypothesis is a major foundation of the. Big five personality traits, 7 the, hexaco model of personality structure 8 and the 16pf questionnaire and has been used to study the structure of personality traits in a number of cultural and linguistic settings. 9, contents, history edit, early estimates edit, sir Francis Galton was one of the first scientists to apply the lexical hypothesis to the study of personality, 4 stating: I tried to gain an idea of the number of the more conspicuous aspects of the character.
20:1,22, 33:36-37 Located in the wilderness of Zin ; Miriam 's burial place Probably ain el Qadeis mount Hor. 20:22, 21:4, 33:37-41 On the Edomite border; Aaron 's burial place - - zalmonah. 21:10-11, 33: Abarim ruins. 21:11, 33: Dibon Gad. 33: Almon Diblathaim. 33: Abarim mountains.
33:13-14 Israelites encamped beneath mount Nebo - - moab Plains. 22:1, 33:48-50 Israelites encamped on the jordan river from beith hayishimoth to aveil Hashittim Occupied most of the Trans-Jordan region References edit nili. Fox, in Adele berlin, marc zvi brettler (editors The jewish study bible, jewish Publication Society tanakh translation, Oxford University Press, Oxford (1999. 349: "The literary style of the itinerary, the repetition of campsite names, and the highlighting of events in those places closely resemble extant military records from the ancient near East, especially from Assyria. Accordingly, the notation in this Priestly source that Moses recorded the starting points of their various marches (v. 2) fits the genre.
Two sample test of hypothesis
33:14-15 God commands Moses to strike a "Rock of dessay Horeb water gushes forth to alleviate thirst? 10:12, 33:15-16 near mount Sinai kibroth-Hattaavah. Graves of Longing or Graves of Lust - - hazeroth. 11:35, 12:16, 33: Rithmah. 33: mount Shapher. 33: Hor Haggidgad. 33: near northern tip of Gulf of Aqaba kadesh.
33:5-6 An Egyptian city near the border Tjeku (zuko tell el-Maskhuta ( Pithom ) Etham. 33:6-8 "On the edge of the wilderness" Ismailia? Mouth of the gorges, "between Migdol and summary the sea, opposite ba'al-Zephon" (possibly "the bay of Hiroth Prob. A channel opening into one of the bitter lakes or the mediterranean - pi-hahiroth was located near the red sea. 'bitterness' 30 kilometres north of As Suways (the port of suez )? 33:9-10 Had 12 wells and 70 palm trees? By the red sea. 33: near Gulf of suez sin Wilderness. 33:11-12 God supplies quail and manna, "Between Elim and Sinai" Dophkah.
added into it by the redactor. The situation also occurs in reverse, where some brief texts, within parts of the list, and ascribed to the redactor, are usually regarded as not being part of the list of stations, albeit without much conviction. This is particularly true for. Numbers 21:14-15, which references unknown events in the lost book of the wars of the lord, and Numbers 21:16b-18a, describing the digging of the well at beer. Biblical commentators like st Jerome in his Epistle to fabiola, bede ( Letter to Acca: "de mansionibus Filiorum Israhel" ) and St Peter Damian discussed the Stations according to the hebrew meanings of their names. 3 Dante modeled the 42 chapters of his Vita nuova on them. 4 List of the Stations of the Exodus edit Station Biblical reference description Modern location raamses. 33:3,5 The raamses district was of the highest quality land in Egypt (Ge.
Israelites, during their journey through the wilderness, after having left. Consequently, the parts which were inserted to join up the sources appear in suitable locations in the books of Exodus and. However, a slightly variant version of the list appears in full at Numbers 33, and task several parts of the journey described in the full list, most noticeably the journey from. Sinai to, zin, do not appear in the fragmented version. It is tempting to suggest that the journey from Sinai to zin was cut out of the fragmented version due to a copying error caused by the similarity in sound of "Sinai" and "Zin". However, as there are 42 locations in the full list, and the. Israelites were said to have been in the desert for 40 years, 2 it is possible that several locations in the full list were added to the list of destinations as a literary device. Both versions of the list contain several brief narrative fragments. And they came.
Characteristics of good hypothesis
From wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from, stations list jump to navigation, jump to search. Wanderings in the desert map, 1641. The, stations of the Exodus are the 42 locations visited by the. Israelites following their exodus from Egypt, recorded in, numbers 33, with variations also recorded in the books. According to the documentary hypothesis, the list of the Stations is believed to have originally been a distinct and separate source rainbow text. 1, in this hypothesis, it is believed that the redactor, in combining the, torah 's sources, used parts of the Stations list to fill out awkward joins between the main sources. The list records the locations visited by the.